The B-2 Bomber was designed almost entirely by computers.
A radical departure from traditional methods at the time. Engineers could design the models right down to a screw, and test out the crafts stealth.
The manufacturing process was also done with computers and robots. This was crucial to prevent errors because they could compromise the planes stealth.
At the beginning of the project the Air Force planned to buy 132 B-2s. Costing the US about $22 billion. When the aircraft was unveiled in 1988, the price was $70 billion. Congress was not pleased, especially since the B-2 cost $20 billion to develop. With the collapse of the Soviet Union the prices increased and the value of the planes decreased. Many feel that plane isn't worth its price. Especially since the cheaper B-52 can carry more bombs at a faster speed. There are no plans at this time to increase the size of the fleet.
The B-2 has an advanced two-man cockpit with provisions for a third crew member/observer. Extreme technology has done away with the flight engineer and bombardier of earlier bombers.
The Hughes AN/APQ-181 attack radar has conformal phased array transmitters buried in the fuselage, doing away with the need for a dish aerial and its associated bulbous dome.
Extensive use is made of graphite/epoxy materials in the aircraft's structure. These are not good reflectors of radar energy and contribute to the bomber's stealthiness.
The B-2s undercarriage has been adapted from a design that was used on the Boeing 757 and 767.
Vapor trails are the enemy of any aircraft claiming to be stealthy. Chloro-fluorosulphonic acid is injected into the exhaust gases of the B-2 to inhibit the formation of contrails at high altitude.
The 33° sweep of the leading edge and the W configuration of the trailing edge are designed to deflect and trap the radar energy coming from a hostile transmitter.
The engines exhaust through V-shaped outlets set back and above the trailing edges to hide these heat sources from detection on the ground.
When the B-2 was first shown, photos were only allowed from certain angles to hide the aircraft's stealthy features.
Wind tunnel models of the B-2 were tested for a record 24,000 hours before the aircraft ever flew.
The radar-absorbing body of the B-2 contains 900 materials and a million parts.
Two B-2s can complete a bombing raid which previously required 32 F-16s, 16 F-15s, and 27 support aircraft.
The B-2 requires input from 136 onboard computers to fly and accomplish its mission.
The B-2 Spirit is a multi-role bomber capable of delivering both conventional and nuclear munitions. A dramatic leap forward in technology, the bomber represents a major milestone in the U.S. bomber modernization program. The B-2 brings massive firepower to bear, in a short time, anywhere on the globe through previously impenetrable defenses.
Along with the B-52 and B-1B, the B-2 provides the penetrating flexibility and effectiveness inherent in manned bombers. Its low-observable, or "stealth," characteristics give it the unique ability to penetrate an enemy's most sophisticated defenses and threaten its most valued, and heavily defended, targets. Its capability to penetrate air defenses and threaten effective retaliation provide a strong, effective deterrent and combat force well into the 21st century.
The revolutionary blending of low-observable technologies with high aerodynamic efficiency and large payload gives the B-2 important advantages over existing bombers. Its low-observability provides it greater freedom of action at high altitudes, thus increasing its range and a better field of view for the aircraft's sensors. Its unrefueled range is approximately 6,000 nautical miles (9,600 kilometers).
The B-2's low observability is derived from a combination of reduced infrared, acoustic, electromagnetic, visual and radar signatures. These signatures make it difficult for the sophisticated defensive systems to detect, track and engage the B-2. Many aspects of the low-observability process remain classified; however, the B-2's composite materials, special coatings and flying-wing design all contribute to its "stealthiness."
The B-2 has a crew of two pilots, a pilot in the left seat and mission commander in the right, compared to the B-1B's crew of four and the B-52's crew of five.
The first B-2 was publicly displayed on Nov. 22, 1988, when it was rolled out of its hangar at Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, Calif. Its first flight was July 17, 1989. The B-2 Combined Test Force, Air Force Flight Test Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., is responsible for flight testing the engineering, manufacturing and development aircraft on the B-2.
Whiteman AFB, Mo., is the only operational base for the B-2. The first aircraft, Spirit of Missouri, was delivered Dec. 17, 1993. Depot maintenance responsibility for the B-2 is performed by Air Force contractor support and is managed at the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center at Tinker AFB, Okla.
The combat effectiveness of the B-2 was proved in Operation Allied Force, where it was responsible for destroying 33 percent of all Serbian targets in the first eight weeks, by flying nonstop to Kosovo from its home base in Missouri and back. In support of Operation Enduring Freedom, the B-2 flew one of its longest missions to date from Whiteman to Afghanistan and back. The B-2 completed its first-ever combat deployment in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom, flying 22 sorties from a forward operating location as well as 27 sorties from Whiteman AFB and releasing more than 1.5 million pounds of munitions. The B-2’s proven combat performance led to declaration of full operational capability in December 2003.
The prime contractor, responsible for overall system design and integration, is Northrop Grumman Integrated Systems Sector. Boeing Military Airplanes Co., Hughes Radar Systems Group, General Electric Aircraft Engine Group and Vought Aircraft Industries, Inc., are key members of the aircraft contractor team.
Primary function: Multi-role heavy bomber
Prime Contractor: Northrop Grumman Corp.
Contractor Team: Boeing Military Airplanes Co., Hughes Radar Systems Group, General Electric Aircraft Engine Group and Vought Aircraft Industries, Inc.
Power Plant: Four General Electric F-118-GE-100 engines
Thrust: 17,300 pounds each engine
Length: 69 feet (20.9 meters)
Height: 17 feet (5.1 meters
Wingspan: 172 feet (52.12 meters
Speed: High subsonic
Ceiling: 50,000 feet (15,240 meters)
Takeoff Weight (Typical): 336,500 pounds (152,634 kilograms
Range: Intercontinental, unrefueled
Armament: Conventional or nuclear weapons
Payload: 40,000 pounds (18,144 kilograms)
Crew: Two pilots
Unit cost: Approximately $1.157 billion (fiscal 98 constant dollars)
Date Deployed: December 1993
Inventory: Active force: 21 (1 test); ANG: 0; Reserve: 0